Tuesday, January 23, 2007

Cert denied in Campbell/Pinks

The Supreme Court denied certiorari yesterday in Campbell v. North Dakota. The primary issue presented by the petition -- whether a state may validly provide that a prior testimonial statement is admissible without the author testifying so long as the accused has the right to subpoena the author -- is a critical one that the Court will have to resolve, better sooner than later. But, for one reason or another, the Court has decided that this is not the case in which to do so.

Friday, January 12, 2007

The Accused Who Doesn't Really Want Confrontation

This posting is actually a response to a comment by Pam Metzger, which you can read under an earlier posting, Lab reports and a notice-and-demand statute -- a significant decision from Minnesota, but I’ve put enough effort into it I decided to make it a posting in itself.

I don’t think there’s anything inherently dishonest about the labels waiver and forfeiture themselves – the phenomena of waiver and of forfeiture of the confrontation both exist, and both should exist. But the labels can be applied dishonestly. I think that’s Pam’s complaint in the context of statutes that provide the confrontation right with respect to various types of government statements is lost unless the defense takes certain steps, and I think it has a good deal of force.

But I do believe a state can constitutionally provide, through a properly drafted statute, that that if the prosecution gives timely notice of its intent to introduce a statement of a particular type then the defendant must make a timely demand that the author be produced by the prosecution, or else the confrontation right is lost (call it forfeiture, waiver, abandonment, estoppel, or what you will). A requirement of writing does not strike me as unduly burdensome in the circumstances; I don’t believe there are great transaction costs, because all defense counsel needs to do is complete a one-sentence form. Indeed, it could be worked out that the prosecution has to give notice on a form, and the defendant makes the demand by returning the same form with the demand box checked off. This is not a big deal.

Pam points to another issue, with her economic analysis, that is quite interesting. I think I can summarize her point by saying that either the confrontation right is valueless to the accused in the particular contexts covered by these statutes, in which case the accused would be willing to give it up, or it has value, in which case the accused should be able to exercise the right, or extract value from it in the form of a trade. But the matter strikes me as somewhat more complicated.

Consider three possible outcomes: (1) The written statement is excluded, without substitute. (2) The written statement is admitted, without the author coming to testify. (3) The author testifies, subject to confrontation, and presumably the written statement is admitted.

Obviously, the accused prefers outcome (1) to outcome (2). But does the accused prefer outcome (3) to outcome (2)? Not necessarily. Maybe confrontation isn’t all that valuable to the accused in this particular context, and the vividness of the live testimony would be harmful from the accused’s standpoint.

Now look at the same outcomes from the perspective of the prosecution. Obviously, the prosecution prefers outcome (2) to outcome (1). And by hypothesis we know that the prosecution prefers outcome (2) to outcome (3) – because if the prosecution preferred outcome (3) it would have just produced the author, and the confrontation issue would never arise. It may be that the reason the prosecution doesn’t like outcome (3) has nothing to do with the fear of confrontation, but is simply a matter of cost. Cost prevents this from being a zero-sum game. Indeed, the cost may be so great that the prosecution prefers outcome (1) to outcome (3) – that is, if not allowed to introduce the statement unless the author testifies, the prosecution does without. Even if this is not so, it may be that outcome (3) is far less preferable to the prosecution than is outcome (2).

So even if the accused doesn’t really “want” to confront the witness, the accused may have ample incentive to insist on the confrontation right. If the accused prevails in his assertion of the right – so that the prosecution cannot achieve outcome (2) without the accused’s consent – then the prosecution might choose outcome (1), the accused’s preferred state of affairs. And even if the prosecution, absent a deal, would choose outcome (3), producing the witness, that does not end the matter. Recall, the prosecution may well prefer outcome (2) (its preferred state) over outcome (3) by a great deal; the defense may not prefer outcome (3) over outcome (2) at all, or the differential may be very small. Therefore, the defendant may be able to demand a good deal as the price of allowing admission of the statement. The deal does not necessarily reflect the value to the accused of confrontation; it may reflect only the cost to the prosecution of providing for the confrontation.

Whether the state can constrain the exercise of the confrontation right to ensure that it is not being used merely to impose costs on the prosecution is an interesting and, to my mind, very difficult question. But for reasons I have stated in one post from March 2005 and another from August 2006, I do not believe that an appropriate response is to shift to the accused the burden of presenting the witness.

Friday, January 05, 2007

Crawford, Davis, and Way Beyond

Here is a link to the draft of my paper from the conference held at Brooklyn Law School in September. The final version will be published, along with other papers from the conference, in the Brooklyn Law Review. In this paper, among other points, I

--argue that Davis is not inconsistent with the adoption of an objective, declarant-oriented definition of "testimonial."

--argue that Davis does not establish an independent formality requirement for a statement to be deemed testimonial; that is, any requirement of formality that the decision might have created adds nothing to the requirement that the statement have been made in anticipation of prosecutorial use.

--lay out, in more detail than I have on this blog, some of the significant pending issues related to the confrontation right.

--suggest how the teaching of hearsay and confrontation should be totally revamped.

--suggest in broad terms how the law of hearsay ought to be reformed, in light of the fact that the confrontation right is now independently protected, and express the hope that evidence scholarship will advance such reform efforts.

I am happy to post draft scholarship of other authors that is related to the confrontation right.

Wednesday, January 03, 2007

Pending Cert Petitions

Happy new year to all readers!

Here are two pending certiorari petitions. One, filed by Jeff Fisher, seeks review of State v. Campbell, 719 N.W.2d 374 (N.D. 2006), in which the North Dakota Supreme Court upheld a statutory provision allowing introduction of a lab report if the accused does not subpoena the author of the report. I have already criticized the decision, in a posting titled Shifting the Burden, Take 2; see also the prior posting to which that one refers, Shifting the Burden. This is a matter in which the lower courts are in clear conflict – see most recently the decision of the District of Columbia Court of Appeals (the highest D.C. court) in Thomas v. United States, ___ A.2d ___, 2006 WL 3794331 (D.C. Dec. 28, 2006). The North Dakota court assumed, without deciding, that the lab report was testimonial (on this question, I think the court got it right; see my posting on Statements by Government Agents); this also is a matter of clear dispute among the lower courts, and the cert petition advances this question as well. The Supreme Court has asked North Dakota for a response, which you can read by clicking here. You can also read petitioner’s reply by clicking here, and the brief filed in support of the petition by various amici, including the Public Defender Service of the District of Columbia, the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, and the Innocence Project, by clicking here.

Second, on December 19, I filed a petition seeking review of State v. Craig, 853 N.E.2d 621 (Ohio 2006), in which the Ohio Supreme Court held that an autopsy report introduced in a capital murder case was not testimonial. I have till now withheld comment on this blog concerning this opinion or United States v. Feliz, 467 F.3d 227 (2d Cir. 2006), which reached the same conclusion (and which I expect will also soon produce a cert petition), but obviously I think the results of these cases are terrible. Indeed, autopsy reports are perhaps the quintessential type of statement by a government agent that ought to be considered testimonial; these decisions are therefore in clear conflict with the decisions of those state high courts that treat as testimonial lab reports and other statements by government agents routinely generated in anticipation of prosecutorial use. Ohio has until January 25 to respond to the petition.